Pluralize a String or Class Name in C# and .Net

Sometimes you need to pluralize names like when you are working with Entity Framework or countless other sitautaions

When you auto-generate from tables in Entity Framework, it will make the table names plural, and the objects singular. Often times, when you are trying to use more generic functions like creating EntityKey objects for attaching to an unknown table, you will need to pluralize a class name, so for this, I came up with a couple static methods to simply return a plural version of an Object's name or a string itself:
using System.Data.Entity.Design.PluralizationServices;
using System.Globalization;

public static string Pluralize(this string s)
    PluralizationService plural = 
    return plural.Pluralize(s);

Simple enough, now I make this specifically to get the table name of an EntityObject:
public static string GetTableName(this EntityObject obj)
    return obj.GetType().Name.Pluralize();

In use:
//returns "Cats":
string cats = "Cat".Pluralize();

//now specifically for EntityObjects:
string tableName = MyEntityObject.GetTableName();

Updating Multiple Fields via LINQ and Reflection Automatically (EF4)

You can use reflection to avoid manually entering a ton of fields

Recently, the question was asked on Stackoverflow about updating multiple integer fields in an EF4 object without having to type each out manually. I had run into a similar problem like this in the recent past where I had a large number of int fields (38 to be exact) and I didn't really want to write in 38 lines of essentially the same thing into my code. Instead, I cam up with this using Reflection. This simple example shows an object 'o' and a single new value 'newValue', but you can easily use an array or list as well for inserting values - this just gets the point across:
foreach(PropertyInfo prop in o.GetType().GetProperties()) 
    if(prop.PropertyType == typeof(int))
        prop.SetValue(o, newValue, null);

You can see in this example, I look only for integer fields, but it would be simple to check for any other type of field, or name, or a field that has a name that starts with 'abcd' - the list is endless and simple to adapt to.

The argument types 'Edm.Decimal' and 'Edm.Double' are incompatible for this operation.

error you may run into while making queries in Linq-to-Entities

What this is indicating is that you are comparing a Decimal data type to a number that is not a Decimal. While it may look like it, this:
0.007 // is *not* a double in .Net land

// the proper form is this:

So instead of this query:
var query = db.aTable.Where("it.Length = 0.01");
// make sure it is this instead:
var query = db.aTable.Where("it.Length = 0.01M");

A relationship is being added or deleted from an AssociationSet ...

this error may be cause by a Foreign Key changed that gets missed by Linq-to-Entities

My old Linq-to-Entities project came back to haunt me. I had to make some changes to the DB to allow a couple things, and with that, I changed some INT NOT NULL REFERENCES change to INT REFERENCES - the obvious difference being that they now allowed null values. No big deal really, I went into my .edmx file and did 'Update Model from Database' and everything seemed to be working fine, until I tried a certain operation that kicked out this doozy:

A relationship is being added or deleted from an AssociationSet 'FK__Gizmo__CategoryI__0425A276'. With cardinality constraints, a corresponding 'Gizmo' must also be added or deleted.

Now those arent the actual values, but you get the idea. This is telling me that my Foreign Key relationship is being violated, which confused me. I had changed that FK to be nullable, so this should not be happenening. I then tried the same operation in SQL Server Management Studio, just to be sure it was legal on the SQL side, and it worked fine. So I figured, like so many times before, the problem lies with Linq-to-Entities. I opened my .edmx and saw something like this:
As you can see, it clearly shows a one-to-many relationship from Category->Gizmo. This was no longer the case, but L2E failed to pick up on it.

The bottom line is that 'Update Model from Database' did not catch the Foreign Key change

Once I figured this out, it is a simple to fix. Simply right-click on the relationship (in the box above) and click 'Properties'; that will bring up the Properties dialogue. Once this is open, change the End of the referenced table from '1 (One)' to '0...1 (Zero or One)' and save your .edmx.

This should not be necessary as you would assume 'Update Model from Database' would catch things like this, but like so many other things in L2E, it just doesn't work like you want it to. I can't wait for .Net 4.0, supposedly most of the problems with L2E are getting fixed; we'll just have to wait and see.

Cloning an Entity in Linq-to-Entities

Making a clone of a record and popping it back into the database

There are a lot of reason you may want to do something like this, for me, users wanted to be able to make a copy of a huge record so they would then be able to go in and change a few things rather than make a whole new record which was very time consuming. At first, I though of pulling the item, manually copying each property, and inserting... but this is programming, there must be a better way. So then I thought about Reflection and how I might be able to work with that, but that became a big mess that I never got working prior to being discouraged. Next I hit Google, and an awesome blog had a great post to get me on the right track:

That solution used Serialization to clone the entity, so simple, and so effective. The example they used there was Linq-to-SQL, but it will work for Linq-to-Entities just the same. I modified the code slightly to be used as an extension to basically any type... as this can really clone almost anything you throw at it (I think):
public static T Clone<T>(this T source)
  var dcs = new System.Runtime.Serialization
  using (var ms = new System.IO.MemoryStream())
    dcs.WriteObject(ms, source);
    ms.Seek(0, System.IO.SeekOrigin.Begin);
    return (T)dcs.ReadObject(ms);

That simple little bit of code will now clone *anything* - perfect! Now is just how to push it back into the db, which can be a little confusing. Initially, I tried this, which was intuitive to me:
MyEntities db = new MyEntities();
note n = db.note.First(nt => nt.note_id == some_int); 
note new_n = n.Clone();

But was met with this error:
An object with the same key already exists in the ObjectStateManager. The ObjectStateManager cannot track multiple objects with the same key.

But, after actually thinking about it, that makes sense, since new_n is the same *exact* object as n, I can't really insert it into the DB, it is basically confusing the two. So to get around that, you have to detach the original Entity:
using (MyEntities db = new MyEntities())
  note n = db.note.First(nt => nt.note_id == some_int);
  note new_n = n.Clone();

Closer, but still did not work, I now got the following error:
The object cannot be added to the ObjectStateManager because it already has an EntityKey. Use ObjectContext.Attach to attach an object that has an existing key.

Which also makes sense as you can't insert an Entity that already has an EntityKey. So one final change and we have a working clone:
using (MyEntities db = new MyEntities())
  note n = db.note.First(nt => nt.note_id == some_int);
  note new_n = n.Clone();
  new_n.EntityKey = null;
  // make any other changes you want on your clone here

And no we have successfully cloned a record (Entity) and put a copy into the database. This would work very similarly for Linq-to-SQL, but I have not implemented it quite yet.

Universal IQueryable Search Version 2 with Reflection

'google-like' search with an IQueryable made even simpler

A little bit ago, I came out with this post: Universal IQueryable Search Usable by Linq-to-SQL and Linq-to-Entities and it worked great, but it got me thinking: if I could implement Reflection, it could be even easier to use and require less code to run as it would get the property names/types automatically. So here I am with the new version and it is working great, it has already saved me lots of time. All of the old overloads work as they did previously, I have just added some more. Here is how a few of them work:

single-level search

Now that reflection is being used, you can pass any sorts of objects to the search and it will only compare like-types, no need to specify. If you are trying to search a collection of 'car' objects in an IQueryable named 'cars' you can just do something like this:

Search(object[] keywords)
var results = cars.Search(new object[] {"chevy", 2007});

That will run through all of the properties of 'car', and if any of them are string variables, they will get compared against "chevy" and if they are Int32 variables, they will get compared against 2007. So this search would pull out all 2007 models made by Chevy.

search for specific properties

The above search will search all the properties of an object, but what if 'car' has 100 properties, and you only want to search 2, that is simple as well with this overload:

Search(string[] properties_to_search, object[] keywords)
var results = cars.Search(
  new string[] {"make", "year"},
  new object[] {"chevy", 2007});

Which will only search the properties 'make' and 'year' for the objects; only comparing like Types.

multi-level search

Now let's say that the object 'car' has a some objects that you want to dig into as properties. The 'car' object has an 'engine' property, but if we run the searches above, it will not drill down into the 'engine' object (though it would compare it if you sent an 'engine' as part of the search array). To get it to drill into the engine object, we need to add another parameter, the Type[] types_to_explore so the Search knows to drill down into objects of that type:

Search(object[] keywords, Type[] types_to_explore)
var results = cars.Search(
  new object[] {"V8"}, new Type[] { typeof(engine) });

Now the Search will search anything in the 'car' object and/or in the 'engine' since it now knows to look inside of it; not to mention it will recursively search down into the objects. This would even find something nested like this:

Since you told it to explore all 'engine' types. This would work even if you wanted to search into string, Int32, bool, etc. Types as they all have lots of properties in the world of Reflection - could be a whole new use for this extension?

multi-level search on limited properties

Basically combine what was covered above:

Search(string[] types_to_explore, object[] keywords, Type[] types_to_explore)
var results = cars.Search(
  new string[] {"engine", "style"}, new object[] {"V8"}, new Type[] { typeof(engine) });

I like this one the least as you have to be most verbose (but not as verbose as the other overloads). If you simply try to search for 'style' here, it will not be found, because you did not tell it to search 'engine' (the property, not the type).

so that's the latest

If you haven't looked at the last post, I highly recommend you do, as it is still the most detailed search overloads are explained there (though a bit tougher to use). This is very hard to explain, so I hope you just take a look at the code yourself or better yet, just try it out, you can see with trial and error how it works better than I can explain in a wordy blog. As always, I am very interested in feedback and improvements!
Shout it kick it on

Universal IQueryable Search Usable by Linq-to-SQL and Linq-to-Entities

ever since Linq came out, I have been improving my simple 'google-like' searches; I think I found the holy grail

UPDATE 05/12/2009 - I have done a ton of updates to the class using Reflection, and a new version which is much more usable and simple will be out in the next day or two.

The 'quick search' is a great tool. Google has shown us that searching with one single, universal search field is the way that people prefer to search. Anyone who has worked with Linq for any amount of time knows this is possible, but it requires a lot of hard-coding and a long jumble of 'where' statements. This class will allow you to run a universal 'google-like' search on any IQueryable.

Now what I am going to show you here was a breakthrough to me, and it has made my life a whole lot easier. It may not be the best way to do this, but it is the best/fastest way I could figure out (hint: I am always looking for improvements), and it is totally portable for *any* multi-column IQueryable collection, plus it does multiple relations as well!

dynamic linq

First of all, this uses the System.Linq.Dynamic dll that was released a while back - it writes a dynamic query each search run, so this was necessary in my approach. If you do not have it, you can get it here:

data for the example

For this example, I am going to be working with Linq-to-SQL, but this works just as well with Linq-to-Entities and have used it in both types of projects. Here is the dummy data I am using for the demo:
CREATE TABLE dbo.category (
category_name VARCHAR(MAX)

INSERT INTO dbo.category VALUES ('ninja');
INSERT INTO dbo.category VALUES ('pirate');
INSERT INTO dbo.category VALUES ('zombie');
INSERT INTO dbo.category VALUES ('weakling');

CREATE TABLE dbo._user (
first_name VARCHAR(MAX),
last_name VARCHAR(MAX),
email_address VARCHAR(MAX),
category_id INT REFERENCES category(category_id)

  ('stan', 'naspinski', '', 2);
  ('sara', 'ortbals', '', 1);
  ('rj', 'russell', '', 4);
  ('brian', 'pond', '', 4);
  ('idaho', 'edokpayi', '', 1);
  ('phil', 'robles', '', 3);
  ('jose', 'meza', 
    '', 2);

Just a table of users with a referenced table of categories so I can demonstrate the multi-level search. Here is what my dbml looks like:

quick example

Now, say I want to do a universal search in all the fields for the word 'stan', it is as simple as this:
string[] columns_to_search = {"first_name", "last_name", "email_address", "category.category_name"};
string[] search_terms = {"stan"};
var search_results = new dbDataContext()._users.Search(columns_to_search, search_terms); 

All I did was specify which columns to include in the search, and what terms to search for; doesn't get much simpler than that. This is the simplest approach/overload, so you can get much more detailed if you want, and I will get into that later, but here you can see how powerful and simple this is. Here are the results when bound to a GridView:

search for 'stan'
search for 'stan'

This simply runs through the columns you specify and runs a Contains() against each field; if the keyword is found in one of those fields, it is considered to be a valid record. As you can see, the email address of of record 7 has the word 'stan' in it as well as the name and email address of record 1. Now if I narrow the search by adding another search term: 'pirate' you will see it narrows down the search to just one:

search for {'stan', 'pirate'}
search for 'stan', 'pirate'

Now you can not see 'pirate' in this GridView as it is just an auto-generated GridView, but 'pirate' is the value of the 'category.category_name' record 2 which is referenced in the last column (chopped off a bit); so you can see how easy it is to use relations with this tool.

what is happening

It is pretty simple what is happening. For each object that is passed in the 'keywords' the IQueryable is whittled down so only the ones that 'pass' remain:

searching with 'stan' and 'pirate' (psuedocode)
IQueryable results;
results = dbDataContext._users.Where(any_of_the_specified_fields.Contains(first term));
results = results.Where(any_of_the_specified_fields.Contains(second_term));
results = results.Where(any_of_the_specified_fields.Contains(third_term));
...and so on...

Note that this only does a single db call to get the first IQueryable (in the case your IQueryable is from a database), once that one is in memory, all searches are done against it, so it is pretty fast.

the search textbox

Now that is all very simple, but rarely are your searches going to be hard-coded, so it would be simple to code in a button handler to search through a specified textbox with something like this:
protected void btnSearch_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  char[] search_delimiters = { ',', ' ', ';', '+' };
  string[] columns_to_search =  {"first_name", "last_name", "email_address", "category.category_name"};
  gvSearch.DataSource = new dbDataContext()._users
    .Search( columns_to_search, txtSearch.Text.Split(search_delimiters));

Pretty basic stuff there, you could also get your columns to search from a user interface like a bunch of CheckBoxes or a ListBox control.

getting more specific

If you look into the code, you can see it gets more and more specific the more you drill down into it. With the above overload, it assumes you are using all string comparable fields and all of your inputs are strings. The class's abilities do not stop there, and can get more and more specific. Say you had a massive table with the following fields: int named 'ID', DateTime named 'birthday', text named 'name' and bool named 'male'. If you simply tried the above overload with that, it would error as the types int, DateTime and bool do not have Contains() methods. But, if you specify name/type, you can use this to great advantage:
Dictionary ColumnNamesAndTypes =  new Dictionary<string, Type>();
ColumnNamesAndTypes.Add("ID", typeof(int));
ColumnNamesAndTypes.Add("first_played_videogames", typeof(DateTime));
ColumnNamesAndTypes.Add("name", typeof(string));
ColumnNamesAndTypes.Add("male", typeof(bool));

object[] search_for = {18, 25, DateTime.Parse("12/08/1981"), true, "a","b","c" };

var search_results = largeTable.Search(ColumnNamesAndTypes.ToArray(), search_for);

Now, since the Search now knows the types, it will only run valid types against the fields; for example, the 'true' object will only be run against the 'male' field, as it is the only 'bool' field, the values '18' and '25' are ints, so they will only be compared to the 'age' field of type 'int'. So, what this search would do is return all the people in the IQueryable 'largeTable' that are ages 18 and 25, who 'first_played_videogames' on 12/08/1981, that have an a,b or c in their names who are male. Now I know you can easily write these queries in Linq yourself, but if somehting changes, you are hardcoding a search change that is easy to screw up, this does it all for you.

parsing varying strings

Now there is a little more difficulty with attempting to pass in data through the magical 'google-like' single search box, but it really isn't that hard, check this out:
protected object[] parseSearchString(string search_string)
    int obInt;
    DateTime obDt;
    bool obBool;

    char[] search_delimiters = { ',', ' ', ';', '+' };
    List<object> obs = new List<object>();

    foreach (string s in search_string.Split(search_delimiters))
        if (Int32.TryParse(s, out obInt)) obs.Add(obInt);
        else if (DateTime.TryParse(s, out obDt)) obs.Add(obDt);
        else if (bool.TryParse(s, out obBool)) obs.Add(obBool);
        else obs.Add(s); // else it's a string
    return obs.ToArray();

Now I obviously didn't go through all the types there, but you get the idea. This takes in a string from a textbox and tries to parse it out to the more specific types before it defaults to a string. Now you might run into conflicts when you want to use integers as strings and such, but if you are this far in this post and still understanding things, I am sure you can figure out a way to code around that. Going back to the original example, now if I wanted to search the '_users' table for either 'category_id' (which is an integer) or the name of that category, I would just use the following:
protected void btnSearch_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  Dictionary<string, Type> columns_to_search = new Dictionary<string, Type>();
  columns_to_search.Add("category_id", typeof(Int32));
  columns_to_search.Add("category.category_name", typeof(string));
  gvSearch.DataSource = new dbDataContext()._users
    .Search( columns_to_search, parseSearchString(txtSearch.Text));

And as you can see that uses the above 'parseSearchString' so if I enter in '1', it is searched as in Int32:
search for '1'

And if I type in 'ninja' is is searched with a 'string' (ninja is the string value of category_id 1):
search for 'ninja'

that's it

I am hoping that at least a few of you can decipher my ramblings... hopefully you can see how this can be useful to you, and with any luck, it will save you some time and headaches. If people are interested, I can go into the code and how it works, but for now I will just leave you with the source (I even wrote comments... something I am horrible at). I am hopeing someone knows how to get the fields/types automatically from a generic IQueryable so this can be made even better - if you know how to do that, please share!!!

Linq-to-SQL vs Linq-to-Entities : Revisited

After 2 months of nothing but L2E, I feel I can give a decent comparison

Most likely you have read more than just a few of these comparisons and are tired of the debate. I too disliked L2E from the get-go but decided that my opinion was not totally grounded and that I should really understand L2E before I crap on it, so, I decided to do an entire project at work with it and get down to the nuts and bolts. Now, 2 months, a lot of frustration and some happy customers later, I can give a fully educated opinion on L2E: it is not as bad as I originally thought, in fact, it is pretty sweet in some areas, but still not as easy to use as L2S.

If you have read any of my multiple posts on Entities this will mostly be a re-hash of what I have already said. If not, this is a good summary of my findings and hopefully will help you decide.

dynamic queries

Winner: TIE
Thanks to the geniuses that wrote System.Linq.Dynamic.dll the syntax is *mostly* interchangable between the two languages (which I didn't realize when writing this). If I was forced to pick a winner, it would be L2S as there are more choices for syntax than for L2E, but that can also be viewed as a fault.

linq-to-sql -and- linq-to-entities
var results = db.branch
  .Where("branch_id == @0 || display == @1", 
    new object[] {5, "Hello"});

With L2S, you can do this as well:
var results = db.branch
  .Where("branch_id == 5 || display == \"Hello\"");

working with databound controls

Winner: Linq-to-SQL
This one is a no-brainer. After being lulled into the fact that L2S just works with so many things, I had to work backwards on problems I found with L2E. One annoyance I noticed was that if I was making an update in a GridView, it would error out unless I explicitly had the primary key in the GridView - and if I wanted it hidden, it was necessary to use css; it is documented here.

Another thing I ran across is the fact that you need to use all the required 'Include' statements in order to get a Repeater/GridView to show child values of relationships with Entities where is L2S, you could simply call the relation without any extra work.

multiple databases

Winner: Linq-to-SQL
The choice is quite simple here, as Linq-to-Entities has no native support for multiple databases.

database relation management

Winner: Linq-to-SQL
First of all, simple things such as getting foreign key values with linq-to-entities is much more difficult than in L2S; examples (written as short as I could):

int s_id = dataContext.records
  .First(r => r.record_id == 1).state_id;

int s_id = Convert.ToInt32(
  Entities.records.First(r => r.record_id == 1)

As for putting those relation values into the DB, the clear winner is L2S as well, just take a look at what it takes to set this object 'r' to have a reference to the 'city' which has a key of the integer value of 5:

r.city_id = 5;

r.cityReference.EntityKey = new EntityKey(
  "YourEntitiesNamespace.cities", "city_id", 5);

a few more...

A while back I went over some other reasons L2E annoyed me such as DataSource annoyances, relations (again) and the pain of updating your model.


Linq-to-Entities is fully capable and can do *almost* everything Linq-to-SQL can do, it just takes a bit more code some times; the almost is for multiple database utilization. L2E is a great ORM, but many of us were spoiled with L2S, so it is now up to Microsoft to live up to the expectations that they put out for us with this framework that they are deprecating. I hope and assume it will become a superior ORM, but that is in Microsoft's hands now; for the time being, it is not.

Shout it kick it on

Writing Dynamic Linq Queries in Linq-to-Entities

Believe it or not, L2E actually shines in this area

I am stubbornly plugging along with L2E, and I am even becoming kind of fond of it (in some areas). For example, I really like the way it handles dynamic queries, even more than L2E because you can pass in objects, not just strings! The syntax is a little different, but I think it is easier to understand and a better approach.


First thing is first: you have to use the System.Linq.Dynamic.dll just like with Linq-to_SQL, you can get it from the links on ScottGu's blog. Then just make sure to throw it in your bin folder (or reference it) and include this in the program:
using System.Linq.Dynamic;

how to use 'where'

Where() is a bit different here. In L2S it just takes in a string, but here I will focus on the following overload:
(extension)IQueryable<T> IQueryable<T>
  .Where(string predicate, params object[] values)

Notice it does take in a string, but also the object array. So say I want to recreate this query:
var results = db.branch
  .Where(b => b.branch_id == 5 || b.display == "Hello");

With a dynamic query I would do this:
var results = db.branch
  .Where("branch_id == @0 || display == @1", 
    new object[] {5, "Hello"});

See how easy that was? The @0 and @1 are simply replaced with the corresponding objects in the array. Also notice that the array takes in all sorts of different object types as it does not matter what you are putting through. Now obviously you aren't going to set the array manually every time, that would defeat the purpose of the dynamic query, but you can easily see how this works.

In some programs, I have even built the string part (myQuery in this example) of the query dynamically with a running count so I know what @ to place in the string; along with the string being built I would add the objects to a List<object> myObjects and simply call the final products with:
var results = db.branch
  .Where(myQuery, myObjects.ToArray());

how to use 'select'

This is identical to L2S, very simple. If you don't use a Select(), it will just grab all the full objects. But if you want to grab select parts, or change names of some stuff, it is not difficult. A simple dynamic Select could look like this:
var results = db.branch

That would just grab the branch_id and display values of the branch items. But you can also change the name of the column they are represented in which can often be useful in dynamically produced tables and such:
var results = db.branch
  .Select("new(branch_id as BRANCH,display as NINJAS)");

Those columns will now be titled 'BRANCH' and 'NINJAS' respectively. Not too tough there. I think L2E got this dynamic query thing pretty spot on.

Store update, insert, or delete statement affected an unexpected number of rows (0). Entities may have been modified or deleted since entities were loaded. Refresh ObjectStateManager entries.

Confusing error while using an EntityDataSource with a GridView update

Linq-to-Entities baffled me yet again today. I was simply trying to bind an EntityDataSource to a GridView then do an update. It worked as expected, even with the foreign keys... but that was only if I used the auto-generated columns. When I tried to make the fields myself with TemplateFields, all hell broke loose and this error popped up.

While this may make sense to some people, it made none to me, so I basically just started changing things one-by-one until something broke. When I changed AutoGenerateColumns to 'false' it would break. But... if I added in a BoundField that had the primary key in it, it would work? Ok, great, but I didn't want the user to see the primary key field, they don't care about it, so I set that BoundField to Visible="false"; it broke again.


You need to explicitly include a BoundField of the primary key! Since I didn't want the user to see my primary key, I had to resort to hiding it via css:

<asp:BoundField DataField="my_primary_key" ItemStyle-CssClass="hidden" HeaderStyle-CssClass="hidden" />

Where 'hidden' is a class in css that has it's display set to 'none'. Not sure why Entities can't figure this out like all the other DataSources...